Grim astronomers in Russia have recalculated the trajectory of the ominous asteroid Apophis and now predict it will slam into Earth on April 13, 2036.
An asteroid struck the Yucatan basin 65 million years ago wiping out the dinosaurs, changing the climate, and destroying much of life on Earth.
The asteroid's name, Apophis, is the Greek name for the Egyptian god Apep, also known as "the Uncreator."
"Apophis will approach Earth at a distance of 37,000 to 38,000 kilometers on April 13, 2029. Its likely collision with Earth may occur on April 13, 2036," Professor Leonid Sokolov of the St. Petersburg State University stated during an interview with state television and reported by Russian news service RIA Novosti.
As more astronomers are recognizing the danger, a major summit has been called. "Russian space officials and members of the European Commission will meet in early July to discuss joining forces against thousands of potentially hazardous asteroids," Anatoly Perminov, the head of the Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos stated in an official press release.
Although large meteors and asteroids whiz by our planet every year—and thousands of tons of space debris falls through our atmosphere annually—Apophis, first seen during 2004, is considered by scientists to be the most imminent threat to the human race.
While Russian and European scientists have increased their warnings of the approaching danger the asteroid poses, NASA has charted a different course. In 2010 the American space agency announced it had reduced the chances the object's disastrous collision with Earth.
Sokolov believes the project is urgent as each day that passes will make it more difficult to steer the asteroid with current technology.
As nations around the world have recognized the threat large space objects such as comets and asteroids pose to life on Earth, no global defense plan has been developed to meet a possible emergency. Without a plan and effective defense, catastrophe might result.
A meeting scheduled for July 7, 2011 will consider a proposal to launch a joint asteroid project between Russia and the European Union.
In an interview on Russian television following the press release, Perminov said, "I received a letter, in which the European Commission proposes to meet on July 7 in Roscosmos with scientists and engineers of the Federal Space Agency, the Russian Academy of Sciences and other institutions and organizations. At the meeting, the Russian bid to start a joint project with the EU will be considered."
50 million Hiroshima bombs
Roscosmos has its own cable channel. Recently it released calculations based on the data gathered from nuclear weapons tests, that reveal asteroids with diameters of one to two kilometers are sufficient to initiate massive climate change after an impact with Earth.
The figures show that a collision with an object of such a mass would generate the equivalent of one million megatons of TNT—or put another way—approximately 50 million of the type of atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
And that, of course, is enough to destroy all of modern civilization.
Forces of Doomsday
Rosomov warns that an impact by an object the size and mass of Apophis, traveling at the speed it does, would create indescribable kinetic energies and release the forces of Doomsday. Such an asteroid strike would create a crater at least 1,000 kilometers across and catapult billions of tons of dust and soot into the atmosphere. The so-called "nuclear winter" would follow immediately and plunge the entire world into the depths of a major Ice Age lasting thousands, even tens of thousands of years.
"In recent years, the attention of scientists, technicians, politicians and the military has become increasingly focused on the asteroid and comet hazard, namely the threat of the Earth's collision with large space bodies," Perminov stated. "It is caused by the fact that special supervision programs led to a dramatic increase in the number of such objects being detected, and the new information allowed to gain a new insight into the problem."
Spacefaring countries have all launched asteroid tracking projects designed to identify and calculate objects that may present a clear and present danger to the planet. NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT), Deep Space 1, Deep Impact, Dawn and Stardust, as well as ESA's Rosetta and JAXA's Hayabusa are some of the most well known.
"Our task is to consider various alternatives and develop scenarios and plans of action depending on the results of further observations of Apophis," Sokolov said.
Fear is gripping the small village of Kovácsvágás as an elderly woman was murdered in her home by an unknown assailant. Police still looking for the suspect.
Elderly people that are living alone staying with relatives because they don't dare to stay in their own homes.
According to municipal officials, the village run out of money and can hardly function. The money the municipality still have needed for welfare payments for gypsies.
This is the second scandal in recent weeks. Not so long time ago, a municipality reported that it couldn't pay its employees because it has to pay welfare for gypsies.
Kovácsvágás had a functioning village guard but lately, it was disbanded, due to lack of funding.
(Notes: It is obvious that the government's hands are tied by behind the scene forces when it comes to solving gypsy crime. This is part of the overall EU strategy of breaking up indigenous cultures by moving millions of immigrants into target states. In Hungary, planned gypsy population growth is substituted for immigration using financial incentives.)
(FM – hungarianambiance.com)
The N1 on-line TV Station is a small but important step towards the brighter future. Up until now, mostly, liberal media dominated the airwaves, because of the big money that behind these media outlets.
The N1 TV Station is an attempt to correct biased reporting by the liberal media and disseminate information that the corporate media won't cover at all or give a distorted version of it.
Due to lack of funding, initially, the television airs a 15-minute newscast during weekdays, starting at 8 PM.
The TV Station's motto is: "Vincit Omnia Veritas” (Truth conquers all things)
N1 television can be viewed on-line at this address: http://www.n1tv.hu/
The first newscast.
(barikad.hu - hungarianambiance.com)
As the revolution is spreading all around the world, the probability of Internet disruption is more than likely. Here is a humorous but original idea how to set up a peer to peer file sharing network anonymously. The idea can be further developed.
Gábor Vona gave a strategic speech today, in front of two thousand of his supporters, in Budapest outlining Jobbik policy for the coming years.
Here are some of the highlights in telegraphic style.
Vona said Fidesz forms the government, Jobbik is the opposition and the socialists are the enemy. Vona warned that the treasonous socialist party is not out yet; one has to be vigilant, because as the Fidesz popularity erodes the traitors will attempt to rebuild the party even under different name.
The European Union is nothing but a colonizing empire. The main purpose of the endless expansion of the European Union is to keep adding vassal states to the empire that can be exploited ad infinitum.
The Eastern-European countries have no chance whatsoever to change their vassal status in the empire unless they form a common front and act together.
There is a historic opportunity for these countries to form an alliance as the power centers of the world are shifting to the East.
But to come to this, first, these countries have to overcome the aftermath of Trianon. One of the ways to achieve that is to give full blown autonomy to the Hungarian communities in the neighboring countries. Alone, none of the countries have the chance to change the conditions of their present status in the European Union.
The most immediate targets of Hungarian policy should be reducing national debt, solving the problems of gypsy integration into Hungarian society and reversing the country's demographic trend.
The only way to reduce national debt is to renegotiate the terms of financial liabilities with creditors.
According to Vona, gypsy growth rate should be slowed down by replacing the current system of financial handouts with food stamps (like in the USA). Vona urges the government to set up a residential school system for gypsy children, in order to break the circle of crime among the successive generations in gypsy communities. The current high growth rate of the gypsy population is due to the fact that the majority of gypsies have been basing their livelihood on child support and welfare payments.
In the mean time, the government should boost the growth rate of Hungarians by giving generous tax incentives to couples willing to raise large families. In power, Jobbik will throw out the current tax law and introduce a three-tier system; according to this plan, average wage earners would pay 12 percent, above than average wage earners 21 and those whose yearly income is above 12 million forints 32 percent taxes. Vona also recommends setting up a system where children can contribute to their parents pension funds.
The most important thing is to face the facts and spell out the truth whatever uncomfortable it may be, because truth liberates said Vona.
Police are investigating the misuse of government funds by a group of liberal philosophers, among them Radnóti Sándor, Heller Ágnes, Vajda Mihály, Gábor György and Geréby György.
During the Socialist-Liberal administration, the group received funding for research projects on a variety of subjects. The amount of money, individual researchers received is quite generous by Hungarian standards.
Heller Ágnes, for instance got 53,9 million forint for an essay she has written on Nietzsche, Lukács and Heidegger. But others received more.
Magyar Nemzet found out that this circle of philosophers has received altogether, half a billion forints from the Gyurcsany government for various projects.
According to government sources, one of the problems with this system of funding is that the use of funds are poorly regulated by government agencies. Indeed, investigators found several irregularities in the use of funds; it turned out that some of the research money went to paying expensive hotel rooms in Paris, some of it have been spent on transportation, database development and hardware and software promotion.
The scandal took an unexpected turn when the most well-known German philosopher Jürgen Habermas waded into the debate by publishing an open letter in the “Süddeutsche Zeitung”.
The letter has been co-written by Julian Nida-Rüdelin and you can read it here. If you don't understand German use the Google translator, it gives a decent translation of it.
The letter is quite disappointing in that it doesn't say anything meaningful about the scandal itself but recites an old mantra we have heard so many times before -- Habermas accusing the government and the nationalist media of antisemitism. According to the authors, the term "circle of liberal philosophers" has antisemitic connotation. In the letter, the authors are making an attempt to exonerate Heller from whatever she is accused of by praising her academic records and achievements in the field of philosophy.
The authors are attacking the Orbán government under the pretext of the media law and urging EU authorities to investigate the Hungarian government handling of the scandal.
But there is nothing concrete in the letter about the actual charges of misusing funds; what we can learn from it are vague suggestions and fuzzy hints about biased reporting and antisemitic sentiments that have been permeating the entire criminal investigation. The authors of the letter, just repeating the same old mantra about rising antisemitism and racism: accusations used by people that have nothing definite to say about concrete issues, instead they prefer stigmatizing opponents.
As you can see, there is nothing in this letter that we haven't heard a thousand times before. The gist of the letter is this: if you don't have anything meaningful to say about your opponent slander him.
About seven hundred people demonstrated in front of Fidesz headquarters, in Budapest to demand the release of all political prisoners. The demonstration has been organized by HVIM and its sympathizers. The New Hungarian Guard was also out in full force.
Several prominent members of the resistance movement and human rights activists were also among the demonstrators.
Krisztina Morvai, a human rights activist and member of the European Parliament warned Prime Minister Viktor Orbán that he can't serve two masters. Everybody understands that behind the scene forces that are preventing Fidesz from releasing the political prisoners.
Gyula Zagyva, member of parliament said prison officials didn't let him visit the political prisoners even as a member of parliament. He noted that not only patriotic organizations demanding the release of the political prisoners but Fidesz supporters, as well. He confirmed that HVIM is organizing a nation wide protest targeting local Fidesz offices.
László Toroczkai, who was ordered to pay 10 million forints with interests for being responsible for the siege of the radio building in 2006, has arrived to the demonstration from the courthouse. He said there are signs that under the Fidesz government the national resistance will be even more hard-pressed than it was in the Gyurcsany era.
The Fidesz government already stiffened the living conditions of political prisoners in jail; recently, prison guards assaulted one of Budahazy's associates with the obvious intent of intimidating him said Toroczkai.
Tamás Gaudi-Nagy, human rights lawyer and member of parliament sent a message from Brussels where he is participating in the EU Parliament debate.
In the message, he expressed his disappointment over the fact that resistance fighters that fought so hard against the Gyurcsany regime are still in jail, despite the fact that they fought for the same ideals as Fidesz did. Rather than reading the prison diary of Gyurcsany and his partners in crime, we are once again forced to be on the street to demand the release of all political prisoners said Gaudi.
The demonstration ended by police harassing members of the Hungarian Guard (identity checks and so on and so forth) that most people already got used to as normal procedure.
(szentkoronaradio.com - hungarianambiance.com)
In the village of Lak, a horde of gypsy children, as young as 13 years of age brutally murdered an 81 year old woman.
The children entered into the backyard of the old lady's house for fun to turn off the electricity of the building at the fuse box. The old lady came out of the house by hearing the noise. The children then beat her to death in her own backyard.
According to journalist visiting the scene, the savagery of the murder was unprecedented. Hardly left any bone in the lady's body that hasn't been broken.
The village of Lak is gripped by fear. Residents don't dare to get out of their homes because gypsy hordes terrorizing entire neighborhoods.
Police captured all the culprits that confessed the crime. It turned out that some of the children didn't even live at home because their parents are also criminals and doing time in jail.
(Note: The only way to solve gypsy crime is to separate this criminal culture off from the rest of the population. However, this remains only a dream until globalist forces that are controlling gypsy crime, as well as the government – every European governments – remain in charge. Unfortunately, for the time being, the defenseless residents of all gypsy infested municipalities have to brace for more murder.)
(blikk.hu – edited by hungarianambiance.com)
The higher court overruled the lower court decision and ordered László Toroczkai to pay 10 million forints for organizing the siege of the radio building, in 2006.
During the sentencing, Toroczkai left the courthouse to show his dissatisfaction with the politically motivated decision.
In a short interview, Toroczkai made crystal clear that the court decision was influenced by higher authorities.
He pointed out that the Fidesz government is increasing the pressure on patriotic organizations. As an example, he brought up the case of one of the detainees belonging to the Budahazy group that was assaulted in jail by prison guards with the obvious intent of intimidating him.
(szentkoronaradio.com - hungarianambiance.com)
Socialists are behind the anti-Hungarian hysteria campaign in the EU Parliament and in the corporate mediaWednesday, January 26, 2011
Magyar Nemzet obtained documents confirming that the socialists are flaming the smear campaign in the EU parliament under the pretext of the new media law.
Those who are not familiar with Hungarian politics should know that the political party called “socialists” in fact, are the local agents for the leech industry; they are pursuing a globalist agenda as opposed to Hungarian national interests.
This obnoxious bunch of people are responsible for all the recent troubles of the country; among the many problems, the most serious one is national indebtedness that required an implementation of emergency measures by the Fidesz government in order to keep the economy going.
According to documents obtained by Magyar Nemzet, the socialists had started their propaganda campaign against the Fidesz government well before the new media law was passed by the parliament. They disseminated propaganda materials among the various factions of the EU parliament accusing the government of anti-democratic policies -- among others appointing party officials into high positions and restricting the jurisdiction of the constitutional court.
In the document, the socialists are denouncing the government for rejecting emergency loan from IMF, taxing multinational corporations, reorganizing the private pension fund and in general, introducing a nationalist economic policy.
Using the propaganda materials, the corporate media and the EU parliament relentlessly attacking the Hungarian government under the pretext of the media law; but the true intention is to punish the government for requiring banks and multinational corporations to take their fair share in the economic restructuring of the country that is absolutely necessary to keep the economy from collapsing.
Despite all the machinations, the socialists couldn't benefit from the controversy; latest polls are suggesting that Fidesz popularity, in fact has grown since the smear campaign started. This is because the socialists have no more credibility left, due to their policy of double standards and the damage they caused to the economy in the past eight years. Even the masses understand at some level that the socialist party can't be trusted, they are just a bunch of traitors working for multinational corporations.
(mno.hu – edited by hungaianambiance.com)
In his last day in Egypt, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán visited the leadership of the Coptic Orthodox Church. He was receive by Pope Shenouda the third and other high ranking church officials.
Viktor Orbán gave a unique book to the Pope as a gift, called The Liturgy of ST. Vazul, and he received an icon from the religious leader.
The leaders discussed some of the issues of the Christian community in Egypt including the recent attacks against Christian worshippers on New Year Eve that claimed the life of 17 people.
Egypt Christian population is about 4 million; the church was established by Saint Mark the apostle and evangelist in the middle of the 1st century.
After the lavish reception by the Coptic Orthodox leaders, the prime minister flew to Brussels to meet EU bureaucrats.
(blikk.hu – hungarianambiance.com)
László Tőkés, the Vice-President of the European Parliament handed in his citizenship application with three of his children on his side, in the city of Debrecen.
Tőkés called the the moment special and praised Lajos Kósa, the mayor of Debrecen -- who was also present during the procedure -- for supporting the voting rights of all citizens.
Kósa said the city of Debrecen is prepared to accept thousands of applications from the neighboring countries.
Answering to questions, Tőkés emphasized that there was no contradiction between his citizenship application and his struggle for Székelyföld autonomy. The two processes are complementing to one other.
(blikk.hu – hungarianambiance.com)
On his third day tour in Egypt, Viktor Orbán met Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak discussing bilateral relations between the two countries. At the meeting, the two leaders expressed their desire to continue the friendly relations both in the political and economic sphere.
After the meeting, the prime minister spoke to Hungarian journalists about his talks with Egyptian officials. He noted that the Hungarian diplomacy still has to do damage control because of the remarks made by former Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsany equating terrorism with Islam. The remarks negatively affected Hungarian-Arab relations at the time and the current administration is still working to rectify the damage caused by the remarks in bilateral relations.
Orbán said Hosni Mubarak is optimistic about Hungarian-Egyptian relations. The two leaders discussed various ways of improving these relations by giving priorities to economic cooperation.
Orbán said in the Arabic world Hungary has good reputation, due to the close relations between Hungary and the countries of the region during the Kadar era. In the Arabic countries, there are officials in high positions that have been educated in Hungary in the communist era and still keep contact with the country.
Egypt has a key role to play in the stability of the region and Hungary is supporting Egypt's effort to receive “advanced status” in the European Union.
During the Hungarian EU presidency, Hungary can do a great deal more about improving relations between the EU and the Arab world, simply because Eastern Europeans can better resonate with the region than other EU countries.
During his visit, the prime minister inaugurates two plants, a health instruments manufacturing and a steel production plant. The prime minister remarked “We are going to produce steel in Egypt. I hope that at some point in the future, Hungarian steel production can be resurrected as well”.
The prime minister also met Amr Moussa the Secretary-General of the Arab League discussing the Tunisian situation. The Secretary-General said what has been happening in Tunisia is a revolution. There is one instructive aspect of the Tunisian uprising, that is the rising food prices. “This is something that Hungarians have to think about in the long run” said the prime minister.
(mno.hu – hungarianambiance.com)
On his second day tour in Egypt, Prime Minister Viktor Orban visited the Egyptian Football Federation and unveiled a plaque commemorating to two Hungarian football legends, Ferenc Puskás and Nándor Hidegkuti.
Nándor Hidegkuti worked as a coach in Egypt and helped Egyptian football to become the number one sport in the country.
During the ceremony, the prime minister remarked that “football is an excellent way to learn respecting each other, because respect can't be learned from books but in the dressing room where it doesn't matter who is rich, who is poor or who is smarter than the other, there everybody puts on the same dress and on the football field everyone pursues the same goal”.
After the ceremony, the prime minister conveyed his appreciation to the Egyptian people for preserving the memory of the two Hungarian football players.
(mno.hu – hungarianambiance.com)
This year, HVIM will organize the second children's camp following the extremely successful event started the last year.
As a result of the demands, this year the camp will incorporate three different sessions.
1. Pilis: July 3 - 10
2. Szarvaskő: July 10 - 17
3. Szarvaskő: July 17 – 24
Children between 10 and 14 years of age are accepted into the camp that will be held in the most picturesque regions of the country.
Video clip from the last year event.
(szentkoronaradio.com – hungarianambiance.com)
The World Federation of Hungarians and other organizations participated in organizing the 2010 remembrance day celebrations decided to make a tradition out of the event.
A committee was formed that will organize the 2011 remembrance day ceremonies in Versailles that will be expanded this year. The main event will be held in front of the Trianon palace and a second event will be held in downtown, in front of the St. Luis Basilica.
This year, organizers are expanding the the scope of the celebrations and incorporate new locations in the Carpathian basin, in France and in Western-Europe as well.
Travel aids and organizer of the event is István Oláh, member of the World Federation of Hungarians leadership. He can be reached at Oláh István: +36-20-391-32-29, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Western-European activities relating to the event is organized by Oszkár Szegi; he can be reached at Szegi Oszkár: +49-160-932-162-85 email: Oszkar.Szegi@gmx.de.
According to initial reports, the interest in the 2011 event is so high that it may even supersede the last year event.
Justice for Europe petition, both English and Hungarian can be read here.
(MVSZ Sajtószolgálat – kuruc.info – hungarianambiance.com)
According to a recent poll by Szonda Ipsos, Fidesz popularity increased by 3 percent among decided voters this month, (65 percent).
Socialists approval rating dropped from 21 to 17 percent. Jobbik support is 11 percent, unchanged from the previous month, while LMP support is 5 percent.
Fidesz has four times more support than the socialist party that couldn't take advantage of the government's difficulties relating to the controversial media law.
According to the poll, the assault by intentional media on the government made Fidesz voters more determined than ever before. If elections would be held today, 71 percent of Fidesz supporters would go to the polls, but only 53 percent socialist supporters would vote.
Fidesz supporters are more active in every age group, but especially high among sixty and up.
According to the poll, Jobbik supporters are also very determined, their activity level is close to that of Fidesz supporters.
(Notes: Voters are not stupid. They clearly see the hypocrisy and the double standards evident in EU policies in relation to the media law. While EU made a big fuss about a relatively small issue, the media law, until the very same assembly remained silent during the dictatorial rule of the Gyurcsany regime that blatantly violated the most basic human rights making the political situation in Hungary similar to that of Burma and other Asian totalitarian regimes.)
(Szonda Ipsos – hungarianambiance.com)
By Aybolat KUSHKUMBAYEV
Historians, philologists and ethnographers always pay close attention to the problem of denomination and self-denomination of ethnic groups, tribes, clans having existed in the historical past. The circumstances of the origin and development of many ethnic names can be deduced from social, cultural, ethno-political, ethnographical, linguistic, and many other factors, from the special features of the formation of the given ethnic unit, linguistic group in the deep past.
Up to our days, it is possible to meet the most different self-denomination of such peoples, ethnic groups in the historiography which gave the name of certain countries. The ethnic names of a certain people can express different ideas and contents in different languages. For example, the name of the Kypchak people was кыфджак (Kyfdžak) in the medieval Eastern (Persian and Arabic) written sources; кыбчак (Kybdžak) on the ancient Turkish Orkhon relics; циньча (Cinch’a) in the Chinese chronicles; половцы (Polovets) in the ancient Russian chronicles; куманы, куны, палоцы (Kumans, Kuns, Palots in the work of Bizantine and Western authors; etc. Sometimes there are fierce debates among the researchers dealing with these questions, about the
following type of problems: What was the name of this or that people, ethnic group, tribe at the beginning? Are there any connections between the ancient name and that denomination which might have preserved (or might have changed) its form up to our days? The fact that an ethnonym does not change for a long historical period can tell us not only about the stability of the given ethnic name, but also about the durability of the historical remembrance of the carriers of it: their remembrance about their past, their ancestors, their leaders, about the founders of their clans, etc.
In my opinion the posed questions referring to the ethnonym of the medieval Magyars (denomination: Magyar, Megyer, (in Russian: мадьяры, венгры, угры, in other European languages: Hungarian, Hongroise, Ungarn, etc.) belong to the above mentioned group of problems. According to the data at our disposal, the “Magyar” ethnonym was first mentioned in Arabic written sources. In the work of Ibn Rusta, titled to “Kitab al-alak an nafisa”, (written around 903 A. D.), the Magyars’ name appears in the form of “al-Madžariya” (al-Maggariya). If we take away from this word the Arabic article “al” and the suffix “iya”, we can recognize the “Magyar” name. Another Arab author, Al-Bekri describes the country of the “Madžars” (Maggariya, al-Madžarija, or Bilad al-Maggariya). In the 10–11th centuries the Persian authors also gave account about the Madžars (Magyars). For example, there is a description of the country “Maggari”, situated in the West, in the “Hudud al-alam” (a Persian anonym geographic work). In the work of al-Gardizi (Zayn al-akhbar, 11th C.) the Magyars were also called “Maggari (or Maggariyan in plural). In late medieval and modern Russian written sources the following forms of this ethnonym can be noticed: Madžar/Magar – Možar, Mažar [Levickij, 1978, pp. 56–60].
A pre-Revolutionary Russian author, D. A. Khvolson systematized the information about the early medieval Magyars. He brought forward a hypothesis according to which the Magyar (Madžar) and the Bashkir (Bashgard) ethnonyms have common roots. He says that the original form of this term had been “Badzghard” which developed later as follows:
Bashgard — Badžgar
Bashkard — Modžgar
Bashkart — Madžgar
Bashkert — Madžar
Bashkirt — Magyar
Bashkir [Khvolson, 1869, p. 114.]
It is not perfectly understandable how the letter “B” changes to “M” in the quoted reconstruction. The idea of D. A. Khvolson was and is copied and repeated everywhere and is “wandering” from one scientific work into the other. It became an indisputable fact for a certain circle of researchers. I accept the arguments of D. Khvolson about the ethnic relation of the medieval Magyars and Bashkirs. However, I must tell that the terms of “Magyar” and “Bashkir” have no linguistic contacts. The two denominations
bear different ideas, therefore, they have different meanings.
R.G. Kuzeev — referring to the researches of Lotz [1956, pp. 679–680], points at three words from the family of words “Magyar”: 1) mogyer — the country of the Magyars; 2) mogyar — personal name (name of a leader); and megyer — ethnonym. Besides, the root of the word: the syllable mod refers to the country or to the Magyar people; but med is the fundament of the denomination of that tribe (Magyar), which gave the name of the Hungarians. [http://shejere.narod ru/kuzeev]. According to the opinion of the famous philologist, V. V. Napol’sky, “the self-denomination of the Hungarians, the Magyar < mažar (equal of the ancient Hungarian tribe name “megyer <*mezer”), derives from the composition *manc-ar /*menc-r. The first syllable is pre-Ugrian at least in its origin. (Compare the Ostyak denominations: mans (southern), mansci (northern), man si (eastern), mant (northern); “mos” (self-denomination of a subdivision of the Ob Ugrians). The second syllable of the manc-ar* menc-r words have Turkish origin: *ar – “man” [Napol’ski, 2002, p. 246]. In my opinion, this very important view has principal significance, because it properly shows the mixed origin of the self-denomination of the Magyars, and also refers to the complicated medieval composition this ethnic group, which had both Ugrian and Turkish elements, already in the early period of its ethnogenesis.
Once more, the above point of view confirms those earlier and grounded opinions of ethnologists and ethnographers that never existed ethnic groups which contained only one ethnic element (in other words: clear ethnic groups) anywhere, especially not on the Eurasian steppes, neither in ancient times, nor in the Middle Ages. It was practically impossible to preserve the peoples’ “ethnic clearness” in such conditions and times when the Nomadic way of life was overwhelming among those peoples who were living on the above mentioned endless territories, and had manifold contacts, especially from ethnic point of view. It is impossible to handle the course of the ethnic processes unambigiously, the tendencies of the formation of an ethnic group only as unilinear evolutionary development. Without doubt, the practical ethnic researches can show more complicated courses, then it is shown by the above-mentioned schemes and conceptions, having brought forward some researchers, who sometimes are strongly induced by their own hypotheses and patterns, and generally, by their own “logical inducements”. Besides, these researchers go to the extremes by not accepting the views of other researchers at all. Maybe, I tell somewhat heretic thoughts which cannot be accepted at the first sight. In my opinion the scientific concept of “ethnos” worked out by the ethnology of the 20th century regarding the ethnic-political units of the Nomads of the ancient and modern times can hardly be accepted as a whole, even if this concept is still overwhelming in the ethnographic and other scientific literature. Even today, there is not such punctual definition of the conception of “ethnos” which would suit everybody, especially those who deal with ethnic problems (problems of ethnogenesis) professionally and purposefully.
According to the majority of the opinions, the ancient Magyars departed from their “genetic nest”, and left those Eastern peoples of which they derived from, at about the second half of the 9th century. The problem of the original home of the Magyars in the East has been disputed already for many years, beginning from the second half of the 19th century. Many hypotheses, points of view appeared and continue to appear in the circle of researchers. It is beyond the limit of our article to tell all about them. Special research would be needed, which deals only with this problem. It is good news that such researches have begun just in the circle of Hungarian researchers lately (See for example, G. Gyóni, 2007). One thing is clear: there isn’t any doubt that the Land-conquering Magyars arrived from the East into the Carpathian Basin. Constantine Porphyrogenetos, the author of the famous work: “On ruling and directing the Empire” was the first who gave information about the appearance of the Magyars in Eastern-Europe. The Byzantine Emperor named the Magyars by the ethnic term “Turks”. However, he remarks that earlier their name was “savarto-asphaloi”. (Savirs, Sabirs, Sabars). In the course of a war against the Pechenegs, the Magyars separated into two parts: to Eastern and Western Magyars. The Eastern Magyars kept their name, the “savarto-asphaloi” [Constantine Porphyrogenetos, 1991, p. 159–161]. It is most probable that the Byzantine author not only distorted the denomination of the Magyars,
but interpreted it improperly as well. However, there is very important information here: the Eastern part of the Magyars remained somewhere in the East. The events connected with the separation of the once integrated Magyar nation happened not on the Eastern-European steppes situated North of the Black Sea, but somewhere deeper in the East. It is possible that the process of the separation took longer time, than it is accepted by most of the researchers. Maybe, it had began already between the Volga and
Ural rivers, and continued for some decades. A branch of the Magyars departed for the West. In the course of their wanderings these Magyars got further and further from their Eastern brethren, and kept contact with them less and less. There is no kind of doubt that the existence of the Eastern Magyars between the Volga and the Ural Mountains was historical fact. In the 11-13th centuries the Arabic and Persian authors give information both about the Eastern and Western Magyars. (“Maggari”, al-Maggariya”, “bilad Basgird wa Magar”, as self-denomination of the people and the country; “al-Magar” — the name of the medieval town in the Northern Caucasus).
The Eastern Magyar people and their country existed most probably independently in the Volga-Ural Region, in the south-east direction from the Volga-Bulgarian state, until the Mongolian conquest. However, it is difficult to say, whether they had a state really in the given period. The author of the “Secret History of the Mongols” (1240). tells just about their state in the § 262 of the book. This paragraph tells about those events when Subetei-Bagatur had directed his army into western direction (in the text: in northern direction), and subjected 11 nations and countries: “Kanlin, Kibcsaut, Bachžigit, Orosut, Machžarat, Asut, Sasut, Serkesut, Keshimir, Bolar, Raral (Lalat)”. The Mongolian army had to cross rivers abundant in water: the Idil and the Ajakh (the Volga and the Ural Rivers). One can see clearly from this report that the Mongol name of the country of the Eastern Magyars was “Machžarat” (the Machžar ethnonym with the “at” ending in plural number). So, here the information tells just about the Eastern Magyar people and country. According to some long-living theories, Pannonia (Transdanubia, Hungary) was understood under this country-name. However it was beyond the task of that Mongolian army which appeared in the Volga-Ural Region between 1229–1232, to conquer the Hungarian Kingdom. Besides others, the Carpathian basin was very far from the Volga-region. The primary task of Subetei’s army was to subjugate the local people there — the Kipchaks, Bulgarians, Magyars, Saksins, Bashkirs, etc. Another paragraph of this valuable written source tells about the hard fights of the Mongolian army with these countries: “(As) Subetei-Bagatur met hard resistance from the part of those countries and towns which had to be conquered by him, especially from the part of “Kanlin, Kibcsaut. Bachžigit, Orosut, Asut, Sesut, Machžar, etc” [Kozin 1941, § 262, 270]. We must not be embarrassed by the fact that
Western territories, far from the Volga-river are (for example Kiev) are also mentioned in these texts of the “Secret History”. This work is written in artistic, heroic style, and wants to tell about all feats of the Mongols. That’s why it mentions all conquered nations in one context. The text quoted above confirms the information noted in the work of Abu-L-Gazi about the conquest “of the territories of the Madžars
and Bashkurds” [Abu-al-Gazi 1996, p. 99, 103].
We also get information about the hard resistance of the Magyars against the Mongols from Brother Julian. This Hungarian monk of the Dominican order visited the territory where the Eastern Magyars were living between the years 1235–1238 twice. Brother Julian was sent to the East exactly with the task of finding the Eastern Magyars, the relatives of that people which was living in the Hungarian Kingdom in the Carpathian Basin. This self-sacrificing man lacked needs and suffered from hunger and thirst in the course of his long travel, buried all those who accompanied him, but finally he found those whom he wanted to find so desperately. He met a Magyar woman in one of the towns of Volgan Bulgaria. This country had been situated in eastern or south-eastern direction from the country of the Eastern Magyars. The woman showed Brother Julian the way into her original homeland. We can read the followings in the given written source: “In one of the large towns of that region, which was defended by fifty thousand soldiers, the monk found a Magyar woman, who was married off into Bulgaria from that country which had been searched by Brother Julian. She showed the monk the way to her homeland, and added that he can find those whom he is looking for, after a two days’ travel. It really happened so. He found them close to the Large Atil-River.” [Anninskij, 1940, p. 82.]. So, the text of the report informs us that Brother Julian did not have to take a long way already to that place where the eastern Magyars were living. (The name of the Atil River might mean not the Volga River itself in this case, but one of its affluents, probably the Belaja River.) It is clear that the country of the Eastern Hungarians was on the left bank of the Edil (Atil, Itil) river (of the Volga River). Having followed the indicated route, Brother Julian really found his far-living relatives, and he could make himself understood with them in the Magyar language. His meeting with the Eastern Magyars justified his hopes. As he tells it in the referred written source: “Those, when they noticed him and got to know that he is Magyar, got very glad, that he arrived. They led them around to show him their homes and settlements, giving him many questions about the king and the Kingdom of their Christian brothers. They listened to all what he wanted tell them very attentively, about faith and other things, and they understood each other, because their language is perfectly Hungarian. They are Pagans, they have no idea about God, but they neither worship idols. They live just like animals. They do not cultivate land, eat horses, wolves and anything like that; they drink horses’ milk and blood. They have many horses and a large amount of arms and they are very brave in fights. They remember that those Hungarians derive from them, but they did not know, where they could be found that time. The Tatar nation lives in their neighbourhood. But those Tatars, fighting with them, could not defeat the Magyars, on the contrary, they themselves were defeated in the first battle. For this reason, the Tatars selected them as friends and allies, and this way they devastated 15 kingdoms together” [Anninskij, 1940, p. 82]. All this confirms the information quoted from the Mongolian written source that the Eastern Magyars offered hard resistance to the Eastern conquerors and they did not become their subjects on the first occasion. The way of life of the Eastern Magyars shows them to be real Nomads. As it turns out from our narrative, they ate horse meat and drunk horses’ milk (koumiss). The most important information is the following here: the Magyars did not cultivate land, in other words: they were not ploughmen, and were abundantly supplied by horses and arms. When, having got under Tatar rule (after 1238) they got into corporal system of the Mongolian war-organization, then, on the right of the allies of the new rulers of the Steppe, they took part most actively in the wars against the neighbouring states and peoples. The famous and authentic author, Rasid-al-Din tells us that the Magyars took part in the Mongolian campaigns of the 13th century where he describes the military strength of the Empire of the Džuchids, the offsprings of the eldest son of Genghis Khan: the so-called Golden Horde. The Persian historian emphasizes that “a large part of Toktay’s and Bayan’s army (from the end of the 133h c. — to the beginning of the 14th c.) contains the offsprings of those four thousand (Mongols — A. K.), but new Russian, Circassian, Kipchak, Madžar and other units were added to it lately” [Rasid-al-Din 1952, p. 275.]. It is well known that Tokta was one of the Khans of the Golden Horde (1291–1312). Bayan, one of the offsprings of Orda (Ichen), the first son of Džuchi, ruled on the territory of the todays’ Kazakhstan, and then he was the commander-in-chief — or one of the leaders — of the so-called Kok Orda, the eastern wing of the Golden Horde.
Having conquered the territory of Dest-i-Kypchak and the Western part of Eurasia, the Mongols distributed their new subjects according to the military system of Uluses and wings, arranged all effective people (mostly men) into the corporal system used by them, in order that they would fulfil their compulsory military service. This model existed for a long time and it radically changed the ethno-political situation on the conquered regions. The subjugated population was disintegrated, distributed again and again, was moved from the West to the East, from the South to the North and inversely, etc. The nomadic and land-cultivator subjects alike were obliged to follow the rulers
(commanders) of their Ulus into any direction in case of war. The Turkisation of the Eastern Magyar population had begun, (or maybe, had continued), just in the Mongolian period. It is clear that the population of the Džuchi Ulus was composed mainly of those Turkish-speaking tribes, which were partly aboriginal inhabitants of Dest-i-Kyphcak, or arrived together with the Mongols from the East, from Inner and Central Asia there. The Mongols themselves — as it becomes clear from the written sources — quickly got assimilated into the local ethnic sphere, but they kept firmly their tribal and generic names. The ethnic manifoldness of the Nomad population of the Golden Horde cannot cause great surprise. It is confirmed by the latest archaeological material and by anthropological data. The “ethnic kettle” of the Golden Horde operated in the following way: having gone through the Mongolian corporal military system, the aboriginal population and the newcomers became more or less united. The components which “melted together” from different tribal-clan groups, formed new ethnic units or became concentrated under the common self-denomination of the strongest clans. Such clans were not related in blood on the higher and middle grades of clan-macro-hierarchy. However, they were united by virtual relationship on the common genealogical trees. These facts were expressed by the existence of the common “shadžra, shežire” (genealogy) of all clan-groups which stepped conditionally into a higher hierarchical order. If we consider the lower levels of these ethno-political pyramids, then, we can see that those families or groups which were in close relationship with each other could preserve their self-denomination and could keep their usual contacts on patriarchal line.
What happened with those Eastern Magyars in the Mongolian period, which had been named as “Madžars” already for hundred years by then? Could they simply disappear, in other words: could they be assimilated perfectly into the “Turkish sea” of the steppes of Dest-i-Kypchak? Of course, some parts of them dispersed among the Nomads who were speaking Kypchak language, and really got assimilated into them. It is also true that those parts of the Kypchak (Kuman) tribes who offered fierce resistance to the Mongolian conquerors were destroyed physically. Others got assimilated into the new clans and tribes, and lost their earlier self-denomination. Again others, having become part of the Mongolian military system, could keep their earlier generic name. It seems that this third variation happened also with those Eastern Magyars who were dispersed on the large areas of the Great Steppe. The above quoted text from the work of Rasid-al-Din confirms the followings: Magyar units (of course, clans) which were distributed among Mongolian princes and military commanders lived their Nomadic way of life together with other Nomadic tribes, clans on certain territories, and they became elements of the united military strength of the ruler of the ulus. This is confirmed by the ethnic (tribal-clan) composition of the Džuchi Ulus in the 14–15th centuries. T. I. Sultanov, the famous Kazakh researcher introduces the list of such clans (more then 60), among which Madžars are also mentioned [Sultanov, 1982, p. 8; Istorija
Kazakhstana, 2001, p. 235; Iskhakov, 2004, p. 34.]. The list of the tribes of Dest-i-Kypchak from 1430–1460 is known from the works of Masud B. Osman Kukhistani, and also from the list of the 92 Uzbek tribes “Ilatija”, after the “Tuhfat at-tavarikh I khani”, which was edited later, in the 19th century. The “Madžar” ethnonym is clearly fixed in this list, and what is more significant, the ethnonym “Bashgyrd” also.
Completing this list, which was written by the distinguished ethnographer, S. M. Abramson, we get to know about the existence of the “Uzbeg” clan madžar”. [Madžmu at-tavarikh, 2002, pp. 232–233.]. This clan was subject of the Sheibanid khans — Abu-l-Khair khan and to his successors. A hard battle is described in the “Tavarikh-i-Guzida-ij Nusrat-Name”, At the height of this fight “Shaikh Mazid Bahadur from the madžar omak (tribe, or clan wounded Burunduk Khan himself by two arrows” [Materialy,
1969, p. 22]. The Madžar tribal denomination is mentioned in the dynastic history of the Central Asian Sheibanids, the “Nusrat Name” (The Book of Victories). Another Central-Asian writer, Khafiz-I Tanys, also mentions the Madžar clan when he lists the Turkish-Mongolian tribes. Makhmud ibn Vali told about the Mažars in his work, the “Bakhr al-asrar fi manakib al-akhijar”, several times.
An early work of the Kazakh written and oral poetry and story-telling gave unexpected confirmation to the above quoted historical data which show clearly that the Eastern Madžar ethnic group existed and continued to exist on the steppes of the Dest-i-Kipchak in the later periods of the Golden Horde (14–15th centuries). The poem “Er-Shoban” (Knight Shoban) tells that the Kazakh Shalkiiz-žirau (1465-1560) gets information about a campaign of Knight Shoban, and his friends. They attacked the Northern Caucasus from the steppes of the Volga-Ural region — the territory of Golden Horde. In the course of this incursion Er-Shoban succeeded in hijacking 200 horses from a certain Bigazy who lived in the Kabardian Region. During the chase, Er-Shoban tells a speech in metrical form, enumerating the outstanding members of his own unit. Among others, he tells the followings:
“There is one more knight – Kojan, who lives only for campaigns,
His flag is kept firmly in his hands in front of our soldiers,
When the enemy approaches us, it is always him who begins the fight,
As this brave warrior comes from the fearless Madžar genus.”
The Kabardian Bigazy got so much frightened by this threat that he decided to return immediately into his homeland because he understood that he can do nothing against such formidable affronters [Poety, 1993, p. 50].
As we can see, it is told about “Knight Kojan, from the fearless Madžar genus” in this poem. I would like to direct the reader’s attention especially to this passage, where the name in question is just “Madžar”. As consequence, we can regard it to be established that this was the early form of expression of the “Magyar” ethnonym in the Turkish languages, consequently in the Kazakh language too.
The Madžars appeared not only in the ethnic nomenclature of the Uzbeks, but in the ethnic nomenclature of the Nogays as well (Nogay Horde). V. V. Trepavlov enumerates the denominations of the Nogay tribal-clan communities, among them the “Madžar” tribe, and also the denominations of these tribes in Russian documents written in the 16–17th centuries, where “Možarskoe r. in mentioned. In this case the letter “r” means the initial letter of the Russian word “род”, which means “clan” [Trepavlov, 2002, p. 502]. It is known from the researches of Z. Ja. Boyarshinova that the largest branch of the Kypchak tribe in the Middle Horde of the Kazakhs was the Kara-Kypchak branch, which lived its Nomadic life on the steppes extending from the Torghay Plateau to the Ishim and Irtish rivers. The Kara- Kipchaks had significant influence on the neighbouring tribes of Western Siberia too. Boyarshinova mentions the Madžar (Magyar) Kypchaks among the other ethnic groups of the Kara-Kipchak branch (I used the Madžar (Magyar) — Kypchak expression of the author deliberately — A. K.) [Boyarshinova,
1960, p. 75; Istorija Kazakhstana, 1997, p. 154]. Later descriptions of the tribal-clan construction of the Kazakhs, especially the descriptions of the outstanding Russian ethnographer, N. A. Aristov prove that a “мадiяр” ethnic group really existed among the Kypchaks in the Akmola Region of the Steppe Governorship of the Russian Empire (in the Northern Kazakhstan of our days) [Aristov, 1896, p. 379]. Maybe, it happened just at the turn of the 18-19th centuries that the ethnonym “Madžar” gives place to the form of “Madijar” or “Magyar”. This change can be easily explained just in the Turkish languages, where the letter “dž or ž”, can change to“j” or “i”, and vica versa. This information about the Magyars can be compared with the information of F. Shcherbina’s expedition organised for the research of the steppe regions of Kazakhstan at the beginning of the 20th century. We can learn from the 11th volume
(Omsk Region) that only Madijars were living in the 4th administrative aul (settlement). One of the first Kazakh historians,
M. Tynyshpaev prepared geneaological tabulations of the Kazakh clans purposefully. We can understand from these tabulations that the Madijars were included into the tribal-clan hierarchy of the Kypchaks this way: Bultun — Orys1 — Madiar. It is also pointed out the Madiars were at present in the collective of one of the Tokal-argyn clans, named Žokari-shekti [Tynyshpaev, 1925, p. 69, 70]. The places of living and the existence of Magyars, or more exactly, Madiars among the Argyns and Kipchaks were
confirmed by the special ethnographical expeditions organised by the Institute of History, Ethnography and Archaeology of the Kazakh Scientific Academy in the 50-ies and 60-ies of the 20th century [Mukanov, 1974, p. 58, 186–187].
Those, who have became the so-called “Kazakh-Madiars (Magyars)” of our days, joined the Kazakh people relatively late. Above all, they got into the Nogay and Uzbek ethno-political units more or less compactly in the 15–17th centuries. Legends, tales are preserved among the Kazakh-Madiar clans about their arrival to the Kazakh steppes from southern or south-western direction that time, when they were fighting on the side of the Sheibanids. This fact does not exclude the possibility that they might have
appeared also from the West.
Summarizing the above mentioned data, we can see that the “Madžar”, ”Mažar”, “Machžar” ethnonyms can be observed in the earlier texts of the medieval authors, up to the Modern Ages (the 18th century). The form “madiar”, “madijar”, appeared in the Kazakh language later. These ethnonyms are just other forms of the word “madžar”, which is preserved among the Uzbeks up to our days. We cannot explain the existence of the Madžar” ethnonym or toponym, on the territories of the Nogays, Kazakhs, Uzbeks, the Tatars of the Crimean Peninsula, or among the people of the Northern Caucasus by simple coincidence. The same phenomenon can be observed regarding other ethnonyms in the ethno-nomenclature of the Turkish peoples of Eurasia too. The Kypchak, Argyn, Najman, Kirej (it), Kongrat etc. ethonyms exist also everywhere among all the above mentioned Asian and East-European nations. The history of those Kumans, Kuns, Polovecs who got into Hungary in the course of the 13th century is significantly interesting and instructive in this respect. They preserved their language and some steppe mentality for a long time, and they were named “Kun”, ”Palóc” in Hungarian.
I wish to make one more remark at the end of my short study: the Eastern Magyars neither lost their self-denomination, nor they “disappeared”, in spite of the imaginations of some researchers of our days. We have began to direct our attention to these questions only recently, by studying the ethno-genetic, anthropological, ethno-cultural problems of our history, which have still many darks and mysterious, undiscovered details attentively and circumstantially. In my opinion, the research of this very interesting and comprehensive problem must be continued. Alas, our Hungarian (Magyar) colleagues know very little about the essence of the given question. However, I would like to make notice that more and more archaeological data show that not only ancient Madžar (or as it is more often mentioned: Ugrian) relics are preserved on the territories of Northern- and Western Kazakhstan, but such relics as well, which tell us about the permanent presence of the rich elements of the Magyar culture there in the early Middle Ages. These elements are essential parts of the many-coloured Nomadic civilisation of the Great Steppe.
The “urus” word is the phonetic variation of “Russian”. This form can be explained easily. It is alien from the Turkish languages to use “the letter “r” as initial letter. That’s why the word “Russian” got an accent and form of “urus, orus, orys”. One can meet the forms of “arus, ars” in the written sources too: the later variant was most probaby pronounced as “arys”. The “Urus” name was quite widespread among the Turkish nobles and among the offsprings of Genghis Khan, at least from the 12th century. According to the interpretation of the researchers of our days, Urus name was generally given to blonde children [Sultanov. Compare: Kazakhstan: letopis’ trekh tysijachletij, 1992, p. 198.]
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Ахмеда бен-Омар ибн-Даста. СПб., 1869.
University professor with historian and law qualifications; was born in 1969 in Omsk. Graduated at the University of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. Received a Ph.D.-degree in history in 1998 for a thesis dealing with the history of the Kazakh armament in the 17th-18th century. Between 1993 and 1998 he was with the Oriental Institute of the Kazakh Academy of Sciences. At present he is university professor at the department of Politology and History at the University of Kokshetau. He is member of the Kazakh-Hungarian research team. Mr. Kushkumbayev published more than 60 papers, five books. One of them is concerned with the history of the Golden Horde in the 13th-15th centuries.
© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2009
JOURNAL OF EURASIAN STUDIES
Volume I., Issue 4.
The sexiest athlete of the year award in the female category went to Zsuzsanna Jakabos European Champion swimmer and in the male category, to Gábor Kucsera, World and European champion paddler.
The most popular athlete of the year award went to Gábor Talmácsi (Motorcycle racing)
The rookie of the year award went to Tímea Babos (Tenis)
The manager of the year: Felix Rácz
The best team of the year award went to MKB Veszprém (Handball)
The most charitable athlete of 2010 prize has been awarded to World Champion boxer Zsolt Erdei.
The extreme sport athlete of 2010 award went to Zsolt Erőss (Mountain climber)
(blikk.hu – hungarianambiance.com)
Lajos Bokros the Soviet educated “economist” never coordinates the topic of his speeches with his party said Zsolt Makay MDF official.
The globalist stooge attacked the Fidesz government in the European Parliament under the pretext of the media law without consultation with the party he “represents”.
According to Makay, if the practice continues the party will recall the offending individual from his position.
However, Bokros is not obliged to quit and can keep his job until his mandate is up.
We don't entertain any hope that this most despicable creature has the moral caliber to do what every honorable politician expected to do in situations like this -- quit.
Lajos Bokros is the prototype of the quintessential parasite who is willing to represent anybody for a fat paycheck.
(MTI - edited by hungarianambiance.com)
Krisztina Morvai: Hungary might leave the European Union if the hysteria campaign against the Hungarian nation continuesThursday, January 20, 2011
Addressing to the EU assembly, Krisztina Morvai warns the hypocritical institution that if it doesn't stop slandering the Hungarian nation under the pretext of the media law that will speed up the awakening of the Hungarian people and create a condition that might end up Hungary leaving the European Union. Ms. Morvai remarked that if the conflict ever comes to that Hungary won't be the only one that quits.
Ms. Morvai pointed out that the champions of double standards didn't object the criminal Gyurcsany regime that instituted a virtual dictatorship during its eight year rule by ordering police to shoot, imprison and torture peaceful protesters. Then, the assembly called the most blatant violation of human rights internal matter.
Dear Hungarian Friends,
This is to convey our respect and support to you. The results of last year’s parliamentary elections in Hungary give hope for successful completion of the process of leading your country out of communism. The efforts of Prime Minister Viktor Orbán and his government fill our hearts with hope. Their determination is bound to bring about real success: it can lead to creation of legal and institutional basis of a state, which will finally cease being called "post-communist".
When Prime Minister Viktor Orbán and his government came to power Hungary was facing economic catastrophe. Their predecessors’ mistaken decisions and fraudulent acts led to this situation. The present government in Budapest struggles to cope with the internal crisis while surrounded by hostile international attitude. Hungary aims to reform public finances and avoid losing sovereignty for the business of international institutions at the same time – a daring and risky attempt. Yet, it is your determination and deep understanding of Hungarian raison d’ėtat which make us admire you. Your patriotism wakes our hopes. Hungary’s success will pave the way for others, also for us in Poland. Your failure would be welcomed in Europe by those overwhelmed by incapacitating political correctness, economic dogmatism and aversion towards any successful solutions worked out independently by national governments.
Your strength is your unity. The reformatory government is still widely supported. Your opponents, claiming to be protectors of Hungarian economic ‘freedom’, protect in fact the interest of Hungarian post-communist powers allied with the European left-wingers and international companies seeking easy profits. We do hope that the attempted drive against Viktor Orbán’s government will not weaken your citizens’ support.
We count on you. Your success will set a precedent and will serve as an example to be followed by Poland, by other post-communist countries, and also by Europe – desperately looking for new ideas.
Please accept our signatures under this letter as a sign of our solidarity and a proof of invariable Polish – Hungarian friendship and common fate.
Warsaw, 19th January, 2011
Tamás Szadai tried to save the life of one of the victims of the disco tragedy; he talked to TV2 about what happened in the disco during the fateful night. He pretended, he was a security guard to be able to move more easily in the overcrowded place.
“I shouted to make the crowed move towards the upper floors, then someone said people were already lying on the ground. I've seen three individuals, two girls and one young man. I helped the young man getting up. Someone was standing on the body of one of the girls. I pushed him off to help Kinga...I tried to pick her up but no one helped. I cried out for help, a man came over and we took Kinga out of the place; I sprinkled water over her face but nothing helped. She had injury on her face, mouth and nose and on her left side there was a 10 cm cut”.
Kinga was already dead. She didn't have pulse, she didn't breath and one of her eyes was half open said Szadai.
Tamás Szadai gave a detailed account of what happened. Why then police still insisting that no one reported seeing any stab wound on any of the victims?
(stop.hu – hungarianambiance.com)
The bulk of criticism of the media law came from the two most enthusiastic cheerleaders of globalism – Martin Schulz representing the socialist fraction and Daniel Cohn-Bendit representing the green fraction of the European Parliament.
Responding to a barrage of criticism, the prime minister rejected the accusations by saying that critics are mislead and they are misunderstanding the law.
How can the lack of balanced reporting be penalized, asked the prime minister, referring to one of the charges critics brought against the media law.
In his speech Martin Schulz remarked that the Hungarian presidency will be judged by its achievements rather than the program itself. The prime minister immediately countered by saying that he advises critics to use the same approach when evaluating the media law, as well.
Orbán said I would like to point out that we are living in the twenty first century. Talking about Internet censorship in the twenty first century, in Hungary or any other county in Europe is shocking (Internet regulation was one of the main charges against the media law)? “We won the election by using the uncontrolled Internet, especially Facebook” said the prime minister.
He, then, continued educating his audience by outlining the history of the media law in Hungary. The current law is the replacement of the communist media legislation passed in 1986; this law had the potential of banning newspapers, yet nobody objected it in the past twenty years, despite the fact that it was anti-democratic; he then advised his critics to get back to common sense politics.
Hungary is in the process of rebuilding her democratic institutions said the prime minister. He reminded his audience the measures introduced by the Gyurcsany government in the past decade by using police, intelligence agencies and the justice system to persecute peaceful citizens exercising their constitutional rights. Yet, you have never objected these measures the prime minister turned to his critics. I suspect that the media law for you is just a pretext to criticize the unprecedented political unity that Hungarians accomplished in the past election. I'm convinced that the super majority that the Hungarian people bestowed upon the Fidesz government can serve the interests of Europe as well said the prime minister to his liberal critics.
He pointed out that there is nothing in the German media law that makes it more democratic than the Hungarian one. I don't accept from Germans or from anybody else to question our democratic stand just because we lived in a communist dictatorship in the past forty years. You can criticize the media law but you can't insult a nation said Orbán. Several critics suggested that Hungary is moving towards dictatorship. What is this if not an insult. I will always defend my country against these sorts of accusations, this has nothing to do with media law said the prime minister.
We are ready to fight on two fronts if need be. We won't be happy with the situation but we don't shy away from the debates either. We are ready to fight, we have the strength and determination to pursue the top priorities of the Hungarian presidency.
In his closing remarks, the prime minister said the Hungarian presidency might turn out to be the most successful six months in the history of the European Union.
(fidesz.hu – hungarianambiance.com)
German police detained Györgyi Keleti, the daughter of György Keleti, minister of defense in the communist Kadar regime.
According to Magyar Hirlap, she has been arrested in Munich by police acting on an European wide arrest warrant issued by Italian authorities.
Italian police are investigating Györgyi Keleti for her involvement in trafficking prostitutes from Hungary to Italy.
Györgyi Keleti worked in the Italian sex trade for quite some time. Currently, she is under criminal investigation in Hungary for helping sex-workers settle in the Italian sex trade.
She visited an employment center in Munich applying for work permit when authorities learned that there was an outstanding arrest warrant against her. After detaining her, German police notified both Italian and Hungarian authorities.
It is not clear whether Italian authorities still want her extradited. If she is extradited to Italy, she will have to face more serious charges as Italian authorities also accusing her with human trafficking, which is punishable by ten year jail term.
(magyarhirlap.hu – hungarianambiance.com)
There has been no real freedom of press in Hungary since 1990, not to mention during the communist era before that. What most of the international press mean by press freedom, however, is just a monopolist position of the extreme left, neoliberal media. It seems that all the condemnation and panic about the new Hungarian media law is actually about the fact that neo-liberals do not tolerate any real or presumed obstacles to their limitless media power.
In one way, it would be a welcomed measure by the Fidesz-government with its two-thirds parliamentary majority to somehow regulate the overwhelming weight of extreme left, former communist and now liberal 'journalists' and press but this is quite an unlikely scenario. Instead, Fidesz are doing exactly the same what they meant to regulate and fight against: invading the media, public televisions and radios with their own executives, building the orange Fidesz empire.
However, I consider a more severe problem in that Vikor Orbán and his Fidesz party are abusing the Hungarian voters' will. They were voted in and given license by the electorate to urgently deal with the Hungarian nation's crucial problems, such as the national debt, the economy and many important problems in the aftermath of 8 years of Socialist-liberal destruction. Instead, again, Fidesz is building its one-party national media.
When Hungary took over the rotating presidency of the EU on 1 January 2011, there should have been other questions on the agenda. The world press should echo and condemn the Benes decrees, the anti-Hungarian Slovak language law or the ethnic cleansing of Hungarians in Transylvania carried out by all-time Romanian governments. Viktor Orbán and János Martonyi seem to let great opportunities slip away with the mistimed media law. Thus the international press covers the media-law to such a great extent, whilst autonomy and self-government of Transylvanian Hungarians (currently under Romanian rule) or that of the Délvidék (an ancient Hungarian territory currently under Serbia) remains unmentioned.
Nevertheless we must point out and ask the 'frightened' and 'terrified' western media and the European Union: why were they silent during the rubber bullet fusillade ordered by the Socialist government in 2006? Why did they keep quiet regarding the brutal ferocities and the torture of peaceful, commemorating people on 23 October 2006? Police forces and masked security thugs blinded and semi-blinded 14 people and wounded hundreds in the flow of the 2006 carnage.
Or on Slovakia: where is the world media and the EU when one of its member states has been trying to ban official and in fact everyday use of Hungarian language for its 600,000 strong Hungarian minority? Or in Transylvania, where Hungarian tombs and cemeteries have been and are being systematically destroyed before the eyes of accomplice Romanian authorities? Was there ever such a concerted media campaign against the misuse of power by the Slovak and Romanian authorities in the western press or was there any official condemnation issued by Brussels?
The disenfranchisement of the 3 million strong indigenous Hungarian minority does not seem to reach the world media. When it is about indigenous Hungarians and when Christian tombs and culture are being attacked, Brussels remains silent.
Hungary had a historical opportunity to confront the EU on its double standards regarding these important problems, but the Fidesz government has yet again let the opportunity go to waste because of their own narrow-minded and selfish domestic interests.
Member of the European Parliament (Jobbik)
Vice-president of Jobbik, The Movement for a Better Hungary